This article originally appeared, in different form,
in LOGOS Volume 7 Issue 1 (1996), "The Book
in the United States Today", and may not
be reproduced without permission.

Last update: 5/7/01
US school publishing:
From Webster and McGuffey
to the Internet

By Cameron S. Moseley

After twenty-four years with Harcourt Brace,
in the course of which he filled a wide range of roles
from school/college sales representative to corporate director,
Cameron Moseley was a founder of Moseley Associates Inc,
who, under his leadership, have been successful
management consultants to the US publishing industry since 1971.

Among many services to the publishing industry,
he originated the "universal ownership label",
which has appeared in virtually every school textbook
printed in the past twenty-four years.

A Phi Beta Kappa Yale graduate, Moseley is the author
of numerous professional articles, books and papers.

The publishing industry's school segment develops, produces and markets instructional materials and systems, both print and non-print, specifically designed for use as instructional aids by students and teachers in public and independent schools from pre-kindergarten through grade 12. To achieve and maintain success, school publishers - often referred to as "elhi" or "K-12" publishers - must provide a constant flow of soundly-conceived, up-to-date, properly-graded and attractive instructional materials and systems. Their products, reflecting the requirements and recommendations of various educational and governmental agencies, must meet extraordinarily variegated and constantly changing learning/teaching needs in many different disciplines at thirteen different grade levels in fifty different states as students progress from kindergarten through high school.
The "new math" rapidly became old hat and the heralded move to metrics is barely inching along
School publishers also must respond to educational trends, which often prove to be fads. Some remember, with particular pain, that the "new math" rapidly became old hat and that the heralded move to metrics is barely inching along. They also must react intelligently to incredibly rapid technological changes that are having powerful effects on the thoughts and actions of those concerned with the nature and quality of instructional materials used with children.

Pressures and complaints from advocacy groups of all persuasions, especially in the areas of social studies, literature and science, are a problem unique to school publishing. Some of these complaints are wholly justified, such as those beginning shortly after World War II about the disgraceful treatment, or lack of any treatment, that black Americans received in US schoolbooks. History textbooks rushed through production to meet Texas adoption deadlines did indeed contain hundreds of errors that had to be corrected before the books could be authorized for purchase. But the issues are not always so clear. Should Huckleberry Finn be banned because "nigger" appears so often in it? What may be said and shown in health textbooks about sexual practices, abortion, breast implants and AIDS; in science materials about creationism, nuclear power protests and toxic wastes; and in 1996 social studies books about Bosnia, Ireland, Israel, Palestine, Clinton, Gingrich and Dole? Should Columbus be portrayed as explorer-hero or despoiler-knave? Should selections about witches be dropped from middle-grade reading textbooks?

Although efforts are now being made to establish "national standards" in major curriculum areas, and curriculum similarities throughout all fifty states are greater than the differences, procedures for developing specific school curricula are decentralized. Procedures for selecting instructional materials range from individual teacher choice in most independent schools (secular and religious) and in some public schools, through "building level" and "district level" adoptions in twenty-eight "open territory" states, to state adoptions of varying complexity in twenty-two states.

School publishers "know as much about the curriculum as educators"; their influence is pervasive, but they are voices at the back door in US education.
Developing products to meet the instructional needs of such a diversified school universe and marketing them effectively and profitably present a challenge of large dimensions. School publishing is an extraordinarily complicated business, not easily comprehended by outsiders nor clearly understood by many insiders. And yet, from the inception of a publishing idea through the marketing of a completed product, it is essentially like all other kinds of publishing. The specifics of the "mix" are peculiar to school publishing, but the basic ingredients are the same.

Most persons outside of school publishing-- including other kinds of publishers -- have little conception of the importance of school publishing as part of the nation's educational system. Trade publishing gets most of the attention in the public press, where school publishing is mentioned only when schoolbooks are being attacked or when it is being prophesied that they will be displaced by electronic systems. Many publishing insiders appear to regard school publishing as easily comprehensible, essentially dull and something to be taken for granted. Dick Abel in his piece in LOGOS on "Measuring the Value of Books" devoted only 6% to school and to college textbooks, treated as a single category. The author was kind enough to say, however, that "On the whole the book community can take deep and genuine pride in this sector of the book trade."

In a sense, school publishers live in a limbo between their own industry and the community they serve. Although many of them come from the teaching profession and their business demands that they become immersed in school curricula, they are not regarded as full-fledged members of the education community. Probably because they are profit-oriented, they are seldom heard in high-level discussions of educational policy, although, according to [the late] A Bartlett Giamatti, former President of Yale University, speaking at a 1988 Council for Basic Education Seminar, school publishers "know as much about the curriculum as educators". Their influence is pervasive, but they are voices at the back door in US education.


While sales have risen astronomically in fifty years, the number of major publishers has gone down. Most sales classified as "elhi text" in 1995 were generated by thirteen divisions of eight [now five] corporations
US school publishing historically rests on the shoulders of two authors - Noah Webster and William Holmes McGuffey - and of publishers Truman and Smith. The first truly American school textbooks were Webster-conceived, Webster-produced spellers, readers and grammars published originally from 1783 through 1785. Webster's "Blue-Backed Spellers" achieved total sales estimated at 100 million copies. His dictionaries gave him worldwide fame. And, fighting successfully to protect his schoolbook copyrights, he became the acknowledged father of US copyright legislation. Truman and Smith, Cincinnati publishers, conceived the idea of graded reading selections, chosen and edited by William Holmes McGuffey, language professor and educator. McGuffey's seven "Eclectic Readers" sold about 122 million copies in various editions from 1836 to 1920. Webster's spellers and McGuffey's readers began a tradition of teacher/scholar/author/editor/publisher partnership that continues to be characteristic of the highest standards of US school publishing.

US school publishers at various stages have worked either too closely or not closely enough with one another. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, a group of interrelated companies known as the "Book Trust" were creating a schoolbook monopoly. After this illegal trust had finally been busted, US school publishing became increasingly and fiercely competitive. Dozens of small, privately-owned companies were competing for the tiny share of the school dollar spent on textbooks. In 1942, twenty-eight of these companies finally agreed among themselves to form the American Textbook Publishers Institute (ATPI). College publishers became eligible for membership a year later. Although not stated in the ATPI's high-minded objectives, a primary purpose of the organization was to develop reliable industry statistics. By the late 1950s, so many producers of non-print educational materials wished to join the ATPI, and so many ATPI members were themselves producing such materials, that in 1962, the name was changed to the American Educational Publishers Institute (AEPI). In 1970, the trade-book-focused American Book Publishers Council and the AEPI merged into the Association of American Publishers (AAP). The AAP's School Division can trace its lineage directly back to the formation of the ATPI in 1942.

In the ATPI's first annual industry survey, issued in 1946, "elhi textbook" sales for 1945 were reported as $53.7 million. The term "elhi textbook" now included not only basal textbooks, usually clothbound, but also many other "printed materials of instruction", many of them correlated with basal textbooks but many others "stand-alone" products -- workbooks, test booklets, supplementary textbooks, text editions of traditional and modem classics, literature collections, educational periodicals and teachers' guides. Because of advances in printing technology beginning in the 1930s, basal textbooks, particularly in the elementary grades, were becoming increasingly colorful, more sophisticated in graphic design, better illustrated -- and bulkier.

Sales to schools in 1995 of all types of materials and systems (but excluding hardware) used for instruction probably exceeded $5bn, about half of which was approximately equivalent to 1945's "elhi textbooks". While sales have risen astronomically in fifty years, the number of major publishers has gone down. Most sales classified as "elhi text" in 1995 were generated by thirteen divisions of eight corporations - Harcourt General, Houghton Mifflin, McGraw-Hill, News Corporation, Pearson, Scholastic, Thomson and Viacom. Among these thirteen only nine names from the original list of twenty-eight ATPI charter members can be found.


The twenty-eight
ATPI Charter Members

    The Bobbs-Merrill Company
    Follett Publishing Company
    Ginn and Company
    The Gregg Publishing Company
    Harcourt Brace & Company
    Harper & Brothers
    Henry Holt & Company, Inc
    D C Heath & Company
    Houghton Mifflin Company
    Laidlaw Brothers
    Lyons & Carnahan
    The Macmillan Company
    McCormick Mathers Publishing Co
    Charles E Merrill Co, Inc
    Newson & Company
    Noble & Noble Publishing Inc
    Rand McNally & Company
    Row, Peterson & Company
    William H Sadlier, Inc
    Benj. H Sanborn & Co
    Scott Foresman & Company
    Silver Burdett Company
    The Southern Publishing Company
    The Steck Company
    Webster Publishing Company
    John Wiley & Sons, Inc
    The John C Winston Company
    World Book Company

Eight * parent corporations and
the thirteen major school publishers

Harcourt General
    Harcourt Brace (K-8)
    Holt, Rinehart and Winston (6-12)
Houghton Mifflin
    Houghton Mifflin School (K-12)
    Heath (K-12)
    McDougal Littell (6-12)
McGraw-Hill Companies
    Macmillan/McGraw-Hill School (K-8)
    Glencoe (6-12)
News Corporation
    Scott, Foresman (K-12)
    Addison-Wesley Long man (K-12)
    Instructional Publishing Group (K-8)
    South-Western/ITP School (6-12)
    Silver Burdett/Ginn (K-8)
    Prentice Hall School (6-12)

The nine surviving imprints out of the original twenty-eight are shown in italics above.

*Among the eight, only Houghton Mifflin remains a parent company devoted entirely to publishing.

Since the above list was compiled, News Corporation has sold Scott, Foresman to Pearson.


Five parent corporations and
the nine major school publishers

Reed-Elsevier [buying Harcourt General]
    Harcourt Brace (K-8)
    Holt, Rinehart and Winston (6-12)

Houghton Mifflin
    Houghton Mifflin School (K-8)
    McDougal Littell (6-12)

McGraw-Hill Publishers
    McGraw-Hill School (K-8)
    Glencoe (6-12)
    Silver Burdett/Ginn (K-8)
    Prentice Hall School (6-12)
    South-Western/ITP School (6-12)

Houghton Mifflin incorporated Heath into its K-8 unit and McDougal Littell.

News Corporation exited school publishing, selling Scott Foresman to Pearson.

Pearson bought Silver Burdett/Ginn, and Prentice Hall School from Viacom. The surviving imprints are Silver Burdett/Ginn and Prentice-Hall.

Scholastic announced in 2001 that it was discontinuing the basal textbook programs of its Instructional Publishing Group.

Of the $5bn estimated to have been spent by schools in 1995 on instructional materials, about $1bn probably was spent on products designed for other markets and on testing instruments.
Does $5bn seem like a large figure? It seems much smaller when compared with $3bn spent annually in the US on bottled water, $3.4bn on bananas, $4.3bn on greeting cards, $9bn on pizzas and $9bn on funeral caskets and related services. It shrinks even further when expressed as about 2% of total annual expenditures on US schools. For all instructional materials and systems in all subjects and in all grades, US schools now spend only about $100 per student annually.

The school publishers of 1942 would be amazed by the range and variety of products, print and non-print, offered in 1996 by the members of AAP's School Division, and by their increasing involvement in electronically-focused publishing. They would be particularly bemused to learn that a portion of industry revenues is derived from the computer-software segments of "integrated learning systems" (ILS), and that many products of members of the Software Publishers Association (SPA) must be considered in compiling industry statistics. Words like "content provider" and "edutainment" would puzzle them, and they would be appalled by the predictions of some electronic apostles that connections to the Internet will, early in the 21st century, replace school textbooks altogether. They would not be astonished, however, to learn that compiling accurate statistics for expenditures on instructional materials has become even more difficult than it was in 1945.

School publishing products today can be divided into four major categories:

  1. Multi-component core curriculum programs for the early and middle grades usually consisting of basal textbooks and an array of correlated materials in various media (eg, K-5 reading, K-8 mathematics).
  2. Subject-centered core curriculum programs for the middle and upper grades, usually consisting of a basal textbook in a specific subject (eg, world geography, biology, US history) plus correlated materials in various media.
  3. Supplementary materials in any and all media, ranging through all grades and curriculum areas, and sometimes used as core curriculum programs (eg, manipulative materials for K-5 mathematics instruction, a paperback book on world religions aimed at middle-grade students, a computer-software program for typing instruction, a CD-ROM on Abraham Lincoln for upper-grade history and literature students).

  4. The instructional-content portions of ILS designed to teach language arts and mathematics skills in the early and middle grades.

Schools also purchase for instructional use a variety of products designed for other publishing markets - eg, trade books, reference books, general interest periodicals, video cassettes, CD-ROMs and computer games. Recent emphasis on a "whole-language" approach to reading instruction, stressing "real books" (ie, not textbooks), has increased the use of trade books to replace, or supplement, textbooks. Schools also have access to a variety of curriculum materials distributed without charge, or at minimum cost, by corporations as forms of advertising or public relations. Ethical questions about using such materials began receiving special attention when Whittle Communications in 1992 offered news-related TV programs to schools without charge, provided that students watching these programs also watched two minutes of advertising. Standardized and other objective tests, once treated as part of school publishing, are now regarded as a separate business. Of the $5bn estimated to have been spent by schools in 1995 on instructional materials, about $1bn probably was spent on products designed for other markets and on testing instruments.


The crux of all these efforts is attempting to distinguish accurately among what opinion leaders say schools should buy, what educators say they will buy and what schools actually will buy with available funds.
Basal textbooks, despite their well-publicized limitations in comparison with other media, remain the keystone of US school publishing. Usually clothbound, they are designed as instructional aids to be placed in the hands of students, most frequently in school settings under the supervision of teachers, who customarily receive help from heavily annotated "wrap-around" teachers' editions. A well-designed school textbook is intended as a guide to the study of a subject, not a complete course and not a reference book. A major purpose is to lead students beyond its contents to other learning resources and experiences, including other textbooks with different points of view. Misunderstandings about these points are at the root of many adverse criticisms of school textbooks. Designed to withstand many years of heavy use, basal school textbooks usually are issued on loan to public school students. They conform with rigorous manufacturing standards developed by a joint committee of state textbook directors, school publishers and manufacturers, and are expected to last many years. In most independent schools, however, students buy their textbooks every year and, as with college textbooks, frequently sell them to the next generation of students.

As they review curricula and courses of study and attempt to decipher educational trends in planning new core curriculum programs, school publishers assemble data from sources available to all, such as enrollment projections, state and large-city adoption schedules, reports of educational assessments, policy statements and recommendations by governmental and educational groups. They also listen carefully to reports from field representatives, conduct intensive market research (eg, focus groups, questionnaires, field tests of portions of programs), analyze competitors' present products and "guesstimate" new ones in preparation, and confer continually with educators at all levels in schools and at educational conventions. They depend heavily on in-house judgments by experienced editors, marketing persons and seasoned executives. The crux of all these efforts is attempting to distinguish accurately among what opinion leaders say schools should buy, what educators say they will buy and what schools actually will buy with available funds. When asked why educational products are not tested and validated in advance of publication, school publishers generally will reply that their activities are a seamless web of research, development and market testing. They will point out that, although small portions of programs can be field-tested in advance, it is manifestly impossible for an entire multiple-component program (eg, reading K-5) conceived in 1996 to be tested and validated in controlled classroom situations in advance of 1999 publication. In the words of Paul F Brandwein, author, educator and publisher, "The first edition is the trial edition."

The capital investment required to produce a multi-component core curriculum program for the lower grades is very high - eg, up to $50m for a K-5 reading series. Millions of copies must be sold in order to recoup such an investment within two or three years.
The authors, consultants and advisers listed on major school programs generally include school teachers, supervisors, college professors and technical experts. But since the ability to write clearly and appealingly about a particular subject at a specific grade level is rare, much of the actual writing of instructional materials is done by in-house editors and free lance writer/editor professionals. At all levels, school publishers often turn to outside "educational developers" to produce portions of programs, and sometimes entire programs, to meet adoption deadlines without the expense of staffing up internally. In the decades immediately following the launching of the first Sputnik in 1957, instructional materials developed by a number of government-funded and other non-profit curriculum groups were published commercially after competitive bidding by school publishers. The best of these, in foreign languages, mathematics and science, had considerable influence, mainly favorable, on education and school publishing.

Outside authors and advisers receive either royalties on net sales, usually for one edition only, or flat fees. Since more and more work on major core curriculum programs is being done inside publishing houses, royalty and fee payments are becoming a smaller and smaller percentage of the cost of products sold, ranging from 1% to 4% on lower-grade programs up to 5% and 6% on upper-grade textbooks. Authors of supplementary materials whose work requires little or no in-house editing, however, sometimes earn royalties up to 15%.

Any basal or supplementary product designed to be purchased in multiple copies for per-student use is sold to schools at a wholesale net price that remains the same regardless of how many copies are purchased. There are no quantity discounts. Large customers, however, receive special benefits in the form of trial sets, extra desk copies, exchange allowances when new adoptions replace older books, additional consultant service and business entertainment. The larger the adoption, the larger the extra benefits.

By publishing industry standards, the capital investment required to produce a multi-component core curriculum program for the lower grades is very high - eg, up to $50m for a K-5 reading series. Millions of copies must be sold in order to recoup such an investment within two or three years. Publishers of such massive programs usually can maintain satisfactory growth and profits only by publishing in so many curriculum areas that disappointing results in one or two can be counterbalanced by success in others. Today, a core curriculum publisher achieving annual net profits in the 7% to 10% range is considered highly successful. One of the major attractions of supplementary-materials publishing is that initial capital investments for each product are far lower and potential profit percentages much higher.

Marketing methods vary according to the kind of product (basal or supplementary) and adoption procedures (open territory or state adoption). Strong combinations of direct selling, mail promotion, telemarketing, journal advertising and exhibit attendance are required to market core curriculum programs in all regions, and particularly in major state adoptions. To enable prospects to examine materials at their leisure, school publishers must furnish at no charge examination copies of basal textbooks and correlated items. The cost of free materials is second only to salaries in the marketing of core curriculum programs.

"Stand-alone" supplementary products (ie, unrelated to core curriculum programs) require different development and marketing strategies and tactics. This has led to the formation of hundreds of smaller companies producing supplementary materials in various media and of supplementary-materials divisions in five larger companies, such as the SRA Supplementary Group (McGraw-Hill) and Great Source (Houghton Mifflin). Supplementary publishers can move faster than basal publishers in trends-responsive product development. In marketing they rely less on direct selling and free materials, more on mail promotion, telemarketing, exhibit attendance and on-approval sampling/ordering. And they concentrate on open territory states.

In open territory states and in many state adoption areas, instructional materials are purchased directly from publishers. In several states, however, state-adopted materials must be ordered through state-approved "depositories", usually privately-owned companies handling the products of several publishers, but sometimes a publisher-owned facility. Depositories, established in the Southeast, Southwest and West when transportation and communications in those areas were poor, are publisher-expensive anachronisms that are being phased out. Virtually unknown to the general public, they received grim publicity in 1963 when the bullet that killed President Kennedy was fired from an upper floor of the now-defunct Texas School Depository.


Long-term success in school publishing, supplementary as well as basal, depends not only on intellectual ability, business competence and adequate financial resources, but also on patience and continuity, combined with a desire to produce high-quality products that will provide real help to students and teachers. It is a seasonal business. Most school orders are placed from June through September. Most payments are received from September through December. Marketing expenses, however, are particularly heavy from September through May and development expenditures and inventory purchases continue through all twelve months. Owners and executives who do not understand these characteristics, who add too many rungs to the decision-making ladder and who demand short-term adjustments to improve earnings ratios can create serious problems for dedicated school publishers. Major changes in corporate ownership and management and the breathtaking speed of technological change have exacerbated these problems. Technological changes and the increasing diversity of the student population are having profound effects on the products and processes of school publishing. The system of state adoptions that, whatever its shortcomings, has been a stabilizing influence on school publishers' planning for nearly a century now appears to be eroding. California, Florida and Texas are following Georgia's lead in broadening the definition of textbook to include instructional materials in all media. A little-known new company astonished the industry, and probably themselves, a few years ago by winning about 35% of a major Texas science adoption with optical disks. Yet, though some observers predict that all the states will be open territory early in the 21st century, school publishers must continue to base much of their planning on published state adoption schedules.

A textbook is actually an audio-visual hardware device with built-in software, requiring no power source except the hands and eyes of the user. Its battery life is unlimited.

School publishers always have attempted to cope sensibly with technological change, beginning with "audiovisual" aids and other non-print products after World War II, "programmed instruction" and "computer-assisted instruction" in the '50s and '60s, then video cassettes and disks, computer software, electronic books and CD-ROMs. "Interactive multimedia" and connections to the Internet are the latest buzzwords. The problems of inventory control, greater in school publishing than in any other industry segment, led school publishers in the 1960s to embrace computers and to begin to understand their potential. In the past two decades, computer systems have transformed the production process. School publishers now have pre-press control of the "look of a book", no matter how complicated, almost until it goes on press. Many supplementary items are produced almost entirely in-house through advances in "desktop publishing". Some technophile futurists now predict that, first, interactive multimedia products and, then, connections to the Internet will soon supplant printed-and-bound textbooks and all other instructional materials as well. But how multimedia publishing and Internet connections can be harnessed efficiently for schools at affordable prices has not yet been explained satisfactorily to most educators and school publishers. A recent New York Times feature article included an estimate that it would require nearly $50bn to provide enough computers to enable all classrooms in the US to have adequate connections to the Internet. No predictions were made, however, concerning who would prepare appropriate materials for these connections, nor what they would cost, nor who would pay for them.


Many adversarial critics describe a book, especially a textbook, as linear, rigid and confining. They fail to acknowledge that a textbook is portable, durable and relatively inexpensive. It allows the student reader, with the aid of table of contents, index and glossary, to flip back and forth easily and at will, providing complete browsability. On every page it encourages the student to take advantage of the incredibly diverse information sources now available. It compels the reader to interact continuously with words and illustrations. Furthermore, since words represent sounds; since words and pictures are comprehended through a remarkable optical device (the eye); and since pages are attached to a hinge, a textbook is actually an audio-visual hardware device with built-in software, requiring no power source except the hands and eyes of the user. Its battery life is unlimited.

Electronic materials and systems, however, certainly can take over the burdens of color, graphics and information overload that have outrun the natural capacities of a textbook. As a result, schoolbooks of the future, customized in various ways to fit specific curriculum requirements, may look more like Wentworth's Elements of Plane and Solid Geometry (Ginn and Heath, 1879) or Truman J Moon's pioneering Biology for Beginners (Henry Holt, 1921) than the cumbersome monsters that US school children are now lugging from home to locker to classroom and back home again. It would take five copies of either Wentworth or Moon to match the poundage of a 1996 high school geometry or biology textbook.

Examining Wentworth's 1879 geometry textbook is particularly instructive. Combining "plane and solid" in one volume is acceptably modern. The user is told that "important changes are not sufficient to prevent the simultaneous use of the old and new editions in the same class" - a selling point as relevant now as it was then. Back-matter "testimonials" claim it "had been introduced into sixty-four colleges and nearly 400 preparatory schools" - another familiar selling point. Measuring 5" X 7" and weighing 1.2 pounds, it can be held easily in one hand. The "introduction price" is $1.00.

Wentworth's geometry textbook looks to the future in other ways. It was published in 1879 by Boston-based Ginn and Heath, which split into Ginn & Company and D C Heath shortly after the book was published. In the 1960s, Ginn was acquired by Xerox, and Heath by Raytheon. Today, Ginn, along with Silver Burdett, is a division of Simon & Schuster's elementary education group, with Viacom as the parent company. In late 1995, Heath was purchased by Houghton Mifflin, and its imprint may [in time] soon disappear.

There always will be children and there always will be schools. Schools will of necessity buy new instructional materials every year.

Although the future of school textbooks seems somewhat cloudy, the weather ahead in school publishing generally is fair. School enrollments are projected to increase by about one million students a year for the next five years and beyond. There always will be children and there always will be schools. Schools will of necessity buy new instructional materials every year. Curriculum trends can be discerned and evaluated. Whatever role the Internet may assume, and whatever world wide webs we weave, school publishers will still be needed to develop valid instructional content that can be marketed to schools effectively and profitably.


Bates, Emmert W; Hagar, Hubert A: Loveland, Gilbert; Textbooks in Education; The American Textbook Publishers Institute, 1949 Buckley, Leonard Ralph; "Textbooks", Encyclopaedia Britannica Volume 21, 1969

Cole, John Y (Editor); "Television, the Book, and the Classroom", A Seminar cosponsored by the Center for the Book in the Library of Congress, Library of Congress, 1978

Dessauer, John; Book Publishing: A Basic Introduction, New Expanded Edition, The Continuum Publishing Company, 1989

Goldstein, Paul; Changing the American Schoolbook, Lexington Books, D C Heath and Company, 1978

Moseley, Cameron S: "Saints and Cynics: The Learning Materials Industry in an EPIE-Centered Universe". A report to the School Division of the Association of American Publishers on validation practices and attitudes toward validation, with recommendations concerning industry action, 1973

Moseley, Cameron S; "How School Textbook Publishers View the Information Age", National Council for the Social Studies, Bulletin No 83, Spring 1989

Reid, James M; An Adventure in Textbooks, R R Bowker Company, 1969

Tyson-Bernstein, Harriet; A Conspiracy of Good Intentions: America's Textbook Fiasco, The Council for Basic Education, 1988

Also: Various issues of Publishers Weekly, Bowker; LOGOS : The Journal of the World Book Community (Editor Gordon Graham); BP Report; Educational Marketer; Electronic Education Report; Multimedia Business Report (SIMBA Information, Inc). Various annual surveys; ATPI, AEPI, AAP, BISG, 1993,1994,issues of The Moseley Report

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